Civil War

Nowadays, the pages of news shows a very disturbing fact. The war, which we even fear to discuss and we are seeing an ongoing civil war. On reading the lines, it keeps me in the puzzling state of feelings. Feeling of sadness, feeling of uncomfortable, feeling of worry, feeling of why…? and all. Yes, I am speaking about the ongoing Syrian War, a typical civil war. I know, we don’t like to talk much about wars and all but you know, we should be aware of the facts.

First and foremost, let’s have an idea on today’s part about the perfect defination of civil war.

So, what is it?

It is known as the intrastate war in Polemology(study of war). It’s a war between organized group in a state or country. This may happens to take control of some part or to change the policies of the government or to achieve freedom.
A civil war is a high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces, that is sustained, organized and in large-scale. Civil wars may result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources.
Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers.

A civil disturbance becomes a civil war. Some political scientists define a civil war as having more than 1000 casualties,while others further specify that at least 100 must come from each side.
Based on the 1000-casualties-per-year criterion, there were 213 civil wars from 1816 to 1997, 104 of which occurred from 1944 to 1997. If one uses the less-stringent 1000 casualties total criterion, there were over 90 civil wars between 1945 and 2007, with 20 ongoing civil wars as of 2007.

The International Committee of the Red Cross provided some clarification through its commentaries on the Geneva Conventions. Noting that the Conventions are so general, so vague, that many of the delegations feared that it might be taken to cover any act committed by arm force. Accordingly, the commentaries provides different ‘conditions’ on which the application of the Geneva Convention would depend.

The conditions listed by the ICRC in its commentary are as follows:

(1) The Party in revolt against the de jure Government possesses an organized military force. An authority responsible for its acts, acting within a determinate territory and having the means of respecting and ensuring respect for the Convention.

(2) The legal Government is obliged to have recourse to the regular military forces against insurgents organized as military and in possession of a part of the national territory.

(3) (a) The de jure Government has recognized the insurgents as belligerents; or

(b) Claimed for itself the rights of a belligerent; or

(c) Accorded the insurgents recognition as belligerents for the purposes only of the present Convention; or

(d) The dispute has been admitted to the agenda of the Security Council or the General Assembly of the United Nations as being a threat to international peace, a breach of the peace, or an act of aggression.

(4) (a) The insurgents have an organization purporting to have the characteristics of a State.

(b) The insurgent civil authority exercises the fact, authority over the population within a determinate portion of the national territory.

(c) The armed forces act under the direction of an organized authority are prepared to observe the ordinary laws of war.

(d) The insurgent civil authority agrees to be bound by the provisions of the Convention.

Cause

These conflicts caused based on who people are, whether that be defined in terms of ethnicity, religion or other social affiliation, or because it is in the economic best interests of individuals and groups to start them?

Few causes are pointed out

  • Greed A country at “peak danger”, with commodities comprising 32% of gross domestic product, has a 22% risk of falling into civil war in a given five-year period, while a country with no primary commodity exports has a 1% risk

Grievance – This begin because of issues of identity, rather than economics—were statistically insignificant, including economic equality, political rights, ethnic polarization and religious fractionalization.

  • Opportunity – Rebels to recruit foot soldiers and sustain insurgencies, such as “poverty—which marks financially & bureaucratically weak states and also favors rebel recruitment—political instability, rough terrain, and large populations” make civil wars

  • Bargaining Problem – The contesting powers often do not have the ability to commit or the trust to believe in the other side’s commitment to put an end to war.

  • Governance – Most contemporary civil wars are actually repeats of earlier civil wars that often arise when leaders are not accountable to the public, when there is poor public participation in politics, and when there is a lack of transparency of information between the executives and the public.

  • Military DisadvantageHigh levels of population dispersion and, to a lesser extent, the presence of mountainous terrain, increased the chance of conflict.

  • Population Size The risk of a civil war rises approximately proportionately with the size of a country’s population.

  • Time The elapsed time may represent the depreciation of whatever capital the rebellion was fought over and thus increase the opportunity cost of restarting the conflict.

Now, let’s have a look on the list civil wars and their duration,:

Ancient and medieval

  • Roman civil wars (a list of numerous civil wars in the late Roman Republic and in the Roman Empire, between 100 BC and AD 400)
  • First Fitna, 656–661, the first Islamic “civil war” between Ali and the Umayyads
  • Second Fitna, c. 680/683-c. 685/692, the second Islamic “civil war” between the Umayyads and Ibn al-Zubayr
  • Twenty Years’ Anarchy, 695–717, prolonged period of internal instability in the Byzantine Empire
  • Civil War between Artabasdos and Constantine V, 741–743
  • Third Fitna, 744–752, including the Umayyad civil wars of 744–748 and the Abbasid Revolution
  • An Lushan Rebellion, December 16, 755 – February 17, 763
  • Fourth Fitna, 809–827, including the Abbasid civil wars and other regional conflicts
  • Fitna of al-Andalus, 1009–1031
  • Civil war era in Norway, 1130–1240
  • Danish Civil War (Denmark), 1131–1157
  • The Anarchy (England), 1135–1153
  • Revolt of 1173–74, (England)
  • Civil war in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem between King Baldwin III and dowager Queen Melisende (1152–1153).
  • First Barons’ War (England), 1215–1217)
  • Age of the Sturlungs (Iceland), 1220-1262/64
  • Second Barons’ War (England), 1264–1267
  • Civil War of Livonia between Livonian Orderand the city of Riga and the Archbishopric of Riga, 1297-1330.
  • Despenser War (England), 1321–22
  • Byzantine civil war of 1321–1328
  • Hundred Years’ War, 1337-1453 (between the two French Houses Valois and Plantagenet)
  • Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347
  • Byzantine civil war of 1352–1357
  • Castilian Civil War, 1366–1369
  • Byzantine civil war of 1373–1379
  • Glyndŵr Rising (England and Wales), 1400–1415
  • Ottoman Interregnum, 1402–1413
  • Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War, 1407–1435
  • Hussite Wars (Bohemia), 1420–1434
  • Great Feudal War in Russia, 1425–1453
  • Wars of the Roses (England), 1455–1485
  • Ōnin War (Japan), 1467–1477
  • Sengoku period (Japan), 1467–1615
  • War of the Castilian Succession, 1475–1479
  • Popular revolts in late-medieval Europe
  • German Peasants’ War, 1524–1525
  • Civil War in Kazakh Khanate, 1522–1538
  • War of the Two Brothers (Inca Empire), 1529–1532
  • Count’s Feud (Denmark), 1534–1536

Early Modern (1550–1800)

  • French Wars of Religion, 1562–1598
  • Marian civil war (Scotland), 1568–1573
  • Zebrzydowski Rebellion (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth), 1606–1609
  • Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648 between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Shimabara Rebellion (Japan), 1637–1638
  • Wars of the Three Kingdoms (England, Ireland, and Scotland), 1639–1651 involved a number of civil wars:
    • Irish Confederate Wars, some parts of which were a civil war.
    • Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, to some extent a civil war, 1644–1652
    • English Civil War, 1642–1651
      • First English Civil War, 1642–1646
      • Second English Civil War, 1648–1649
      • Third English Civil War, 1650–1651
  • Acadian Civil War (New France, now Canada), 1640–1645
  • Fronde (France), 1648–1653
  • Lubomirski’s Rebellion (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth), 1665–1666
  • Monmouth Rebellion (England), May – July 1685
  • Glorious Revolution (England), 1688–1689
  • War of the Spanish Succession (Spanish Empire), 1701-1714
  • American Revolutionary War (United States), 1775-1783
  • Pugachev’s Rebellion (Russia), 1773–1775
  • Australian frontier wars (Australia) 1788–1934
  • War in the Vendée (France), 1793–1804; between Royalist and Republican forces, part of the French Revolutionary Wars

Modern (1800–1945)

  • War of 1812 (United States), 1812–1815.
  • Argentine Civil Wars, 1814–1880
  • Zulu Civil War, 1817–1819
  • Greek Civil War, 1824–1825
  • Liberal Wars (Portugal), 1828–1834.
  • Chilean Civil War, 1829–1830
  • Ragamuffin War (Brazil), 1835–1845
  • Carlist Wars (Spain), 1833–1839, 1846–1849, and 1872–1876
  • Uruguayan Civil War, 1839–1851
  • Māori War (New Zealand), 1845–1872
  • Sonderbund War (Switzerland), November 1847
  • Revolutions of 1848; numerous European countries, 1848–1849
  • Revolution of 1851 (Chile)
  • Taiping Rebellion (China), 1851–1864
  • Bleeding Kansas, 1854–1858
  • War of Reform (Mexico), 1857–1861
  • Federal War (Venezuela), 1859–1863
  • American Civil War (United States), 1861–1865
  • Klang War (Malaysia); also known as Selangor Civil War, 1867–1874
  • Boshin War (Japan), 1868–1869
  • Satsuma Rebellion (Japan), 1877
  • Jementah Civil War (Malaysia), 1878
  • The North-West Rebellion (Canada), 1885
  • Revolution of the Park (Argentina), 1890
  • Chilean Civil War, 1891
  • Argentine Revolution of 1893, 1893
  • War of Canudos (Brazil), 1896–1897
  • Banana Wars (Central America), 1898–1934
  • Federal Revolution, (Bolivia), 1899
  • Boxer Rebellion (China), 1899–1901
  • Thousand Days’ War (Colombia), 1899–1902
  • Revolución Libertadora (Venezuela), 1901–1903
  • Argentine Revolution of 1905 , 1905
  • Mexican Revolution, 1910–1920
  • Warlord Era; period of civil wars between regional, provincial, and private armies in China, 1912–1928
  • Russian Civil War, 1917–1921
  • Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, 1918–2003
  • Finnish Civil War, 1918
  • German Revolution, 1918–1919
  • Irish Civil War, 1922–1923
  • Paraguayan Civil War, 1922–1923
  • Nicaraguan Civil War, 1926–1927
  • Cristero War (Mexico), 1926–1929
  • Chinese Civil War, 1927–1937, 1945–1949
  • Paulista War (Brazil), 1932
  • Austrian Civil War, February 1934
  • Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939
  • Forest Brothers, 1940–1941, 1944–1953
  • Ukrainian Insurgent Army insurgency, 1943–1956
  • Italian Civil War, 1943–1945
  • Revolución Libertadora (Argentina), 1955
  • Anti-communist resistance in Poland, 1944–1947/1963

1945 to 2000

  • Iran crisis of 1946, 1945-1946
  • Greek Civil War, 1946–1949
  • Paraguayan Civil War, 1947
  • Romanian anti-communist resistance movement, 1947–1962
  • Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, 1947–1948
  • Costa Rican Civil War, 1948
  • Yeosu–Suncheon rebellion, 1948
  • Jeju uprising, 1948
  • La Violencia (Colombia), 1948–1958
  • Malayan Emergency (Federation of Malaya), 1948–1960
  • Internal conflict in Myanmar, ongoing since 1948
  • Korean War, 1950–1953
  • Laotian Civil War 1953–1975
  • First Sudanese Civil War, 1955–1972
  • Congo Crisis, 1960–1966
  • Guatemalan Civil War, 1960–1996
  • North Yemen Civil War 1962–1970
  • Sarawak Communist Insurgency (Malaysia), 1962-1990
  • Nicaraguan Civil War, 1962–1990
  • Dominican Civil War, 1965
  • Rhodesian Bush War, 1965–1980
  • Communist insurgency in Thailand(Thailand), 1965-1983
  • Cypriot Civil War, 1963–1967
  • Nigerian Civil War, 1967–1970
  • Communist insurgency in Malaysia (1968–89)
  • The Troubles (Northern Ireland), 1969–1998, considered ongoing by extremist minority groups
  • Cambodian Civil War, 1970–1975
  • Bangladesh Liberation War (Pakistan), 1971 (However, the war is not an official civil war, only to the perspective to those who did not support the existence of the independent state of Bangladesh.)
  • Ethiopian Civil War, 1974–1991
  • Lebanese Civil War, 1975–1990
  • Mozambican Civil War, 1975–1992
  • Angolan Civil War, 1975–2002
  • Free Aceh Movement, 1976-2005
  • Soviet war in Afghanistan, part of / also called War in Afghanistan (1978–present)December 24, 1979 – February 15, 1989 (Soviet war in Afghanistan lasted over nine years from 1979–1989 and was part of the Cold War but it was inevitable that the regime was to collapse within three to six months after the Soviet withdrawal)
  • Salvadoran Civil War (El Salvador), 1979–1992
  • Second Sudanese Civil War, 1983–2005
  • Sri Lankan Civil War, 1983–2009
  • South Yemen Civil War, 1986
  • Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–92), February 15, 1989 – April 30, 1992 The continuing part of the civil war where the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan, leaving the Afghan communist government to fend for itself against the Mujahideen months later part of / also called War in Afghanistan (1978–present)
  • First Liberian Civil War, 1989–1996
  • Rwandan Civil War, 1990–1993
  • Casamance Conflict (Senegal), 1990–2006
  • Georgian Civil War, 1991–1993
  • Sierra Leone Civil War, 1991–2002
  • Yugoslav Wars, 1991–1999
  • Algerian Civil War, 1991–2002, conflicts persist
  • Civil war in Tajikistan, 1992–1997
  • Civil war in Afghanistan (1992–96), April 30, 1992 – September 27, 1996 When the Afghan communist government falls to the Mujahideen there was a rise in different kinds of ideology, power-sharing, Belligerents and violent fighting continue to escalate part of / also called War in Afghanistan (1978–present)
  • Burundi Civil War, 1993–2005
  • First Yemeni Civil War, 1994
  • First Chechen War (Russia), 1994–1996
  • Iraqi Kurdish Civil War, 1994–1997
  • Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001), September 27, 1996 – October 7, 2001 In 1996 the Taliban captured the Afghan capital Kabul and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan part of / also called War in Afghanistan (1978–present)
  • First Congo War, 1996–1997
  • Clashes in Cambodia, 1997
  • Nepalese Civil War, 1996–2006
  • Rebellion in Albania, 1997
  • Republic of the Congo Civil War, 1997–1999
  • Guinea-Bissau Civil War, 1998–1999
  • Kosovo War (Yugoslavia), 1998–1999
  • Second Congo War, 1998–2003
  • Uprising in Iraq (18 February 1999 – April 1999)
  • Second Liberian Civil War, 1999–2003
  • Second Chechen War (Russia), 1999–2003

Since 2000

  • Albanian rebellion in Macedonia, 2001
  • First Ivorian Civil War, 2002–2007
  • Houthi insurgency in Yemen, 18 June 2004 – 6 February 2015
  • Fourth Chadian Civil War, 18 December 2005 – 15 January 2010
  • First Iraqi Civil War, 2006–2007, a sub-conflict within the Iraq War February 2006 – February 2007
  • Fatah–Hamas conflict (Palestine), 2006–2007, tensions ongoing
  • South Yemen insurgency, 27 April 2009 – 19 March 2015
  • Second Ivorian Civil War, 2010–2011
  • Tajikistan insurgency, 19 September 2010 – August 2012
  • 2010–12 Myanmar border clashes, 7 November 2010 – 12 January 2012
  • Libyan Civil War, 15 February 2011 – 23 October 2011
  • Post-civil war violence in Libya, 1 November 2011 – 16 May 2014
  • Iraqi insurgency, 18 December 2011 – 31 December 2013
  • Tuareg Rebellion in Mali, 16 January 2012 – 6 April 2012
  • Northern Mali conflict, 16 January 2012 – 20 February 2015
  • M23 rebellion, 4 April 2012 – 7 November 2013

Ongoing

  • Myanmar, Internal conflict in Myanmar, since 1948
  • Papua New Guinea, Papua conflict, since 1962
  • Colombia, Colombian conflict, since 1964
  • Afghanistan, War in Afghanistan, since 1978
  • Peru, Peruvian conflict, since 1978
  • Turkey, Kurdish–Turkish conflict since 1978
  • Somalia, Somali Civil War, since 1988
  • Sudan, War in Darfur, since 26 February 2003
  • Pakistan, War in North-West Pakistan, since 16 March 2004
  • Paraguay, Paraguayan People’s Army insurgency, since 2005
  • Sudan, Sudanese nomadic conflicts, since 26 May 2009
  • Syria, Syrian Civil War, since 15 March 2011, also see List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War
  • Sudan, Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile since 5 June 2011
  • Central African Republic, Central African Republic conflict, since 10 December 2012
  • Sudan, South Sudanese Civil War, since 15 December 2013
  • Iraq, Second Iraqi Civil War, since 4 June 2014
  • Libya, Second Libyan Civil War, since 16 May 2014
  • Yemen, Second Yemeni Civil War, since 19 March 2015

These are the facts of civil wars but many more are left. This is done just to spread the awarenesses.

Trust me, this is nothing but a typical family destruction.

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