Oooo… we all learn geography and all other subjects but often we get bored with them. Lots of learning, lots of reading, lots of writing…..O MY GOSY!!!! And as we grow up we start to forget the part that is not that essential in our everyday life.
Let’s torch on over this geography part of our life.
Our Earth has many region but thePolar Region of our Earth is basically known as the “Frigid Zone”. And guess what, I am going to talk about it. These regions are dominated by Earth’s polar ice caps, the northern resting on the Arctic Ocean and the southern on the continent of Antarctica.
The 60° North latitude is the Artic and the same degree angle but on south is known as the Antarctic.
How is the climate there?
Uhu… It’s shivering … Very cold. But why it is so? It’s because the sun rays falls on this areas at an angle, does the heat is least unlike the middle part of Earth (Equater) which gets a direct sunlight. Here, the sun’s energy arrives at an oblique angle, spreading over a larger area, and also travels a longer distance through the Earth’s atmosphere in which it gets absorbed, scattered and reflected, now you understand why it’s too cold.
Let’s get in some details of this climate.
Due to the axial tilt of the Earth, this region has a major effect on climate. Since they are the farthest from the equator, receive the least amount of sunlight and are therefore frigid. The large amount of ice and snow also reflects a large part of what little sunlight the Polar regions receive, contributing to the cold. Polar regions are characterized by the extremely cold temperatures, heavy glaciation wherever there is sufficient precipitation, forms permanent ice. Here it have extreme variations in daylight hours, with twenty-four hours of daylight in summer, and complete darkness at mid-winter.
Every month in a polar or the Frigid Zone climate has an average temperature of less than 10 °C (50 °F).
There are two types of polar climate: ET or tundra climate and EF or ice cap climate.
A tundra climate is characterized by having at least one month whose average temperature is above 0 °C (32 °F), while an ice cap climate has no months above 0 °C (32 °F).
During tundra climate, trees cannot grow but you know, some specialized plants can grow. But in an ice cap climate, no plants can grow and ice gradually accumulates until it flows elsewhere.
On Earth, the only continent where the ice cap polar climate is Antarctica. A few isolated coastal areas on the island of Greenland also have the ice cap climate. Coastal regions of Greenland that do not have permanent ice sheets have the less extreme tundra climates.
The Arctic consists of ocean that is nearly surrounded by land. As such, the climate of the Arctic is moderated by the ocean water, which can never have a temperature below −2 °C (28 °F). In winter, this relatively warm water, even though covered by the polar ice pack, keeps the North Pole from being the coldest place in the Northern Hemisphere and it is also part of the reason that Antarctica is so much colder than the Arctic.
The climate of Antarctica is the coldest on the whole of Earth. Antarctica has the lowest naturally occurring temperature ever recorded: −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at Vostok Station. It is also extremely dry (technically a desert), averaging 166 millimetres (6.5 in) of precipitation per year. On most parts of the continent, the snow rarely melts and is eventually compressed to become the glacial ice that makes up the ice sheet.
Any living creatures present?
Yes in this Frigid Zone, living creatures do exists. Wanna know more of them, let’s find out.
Four penguin species live in Antarctica. Early explorers thought penguins were fish, and classified them as such. Although they’re birds, they can’t fly and spend about 75 percent of their time in the sea.
Seals are found in both frigid zones, but more seals live in Antarctica than the Arctic because there aren’t any predators there, and the food supply is plentiful.
walruses have tusks that are a symbol of age and social status. Tusks are also used in walking, to help drag the walrus’s body over land.
A polar bear is a dangerous animal, capable of killing a seal with a single blow of its paw. These mammals can weigh as much as 1,000 pounds and are strong swimmers that can stay underwater for two minutes. They are only found in the Arctic.
The Arctic fox follows polar bears around in the winter, hoping to eat leftovers. They also eat lemmings, squirrels, bird eggs, berries and fish.
Arctic wolves follow caribou and can kill an adult caribou with one bite to the neck.
Sea otters are one of the few animals that use tools and will tie themselves into a kelp bed at night with strands of kelp in order to sleep safely.
Lemmings are mouse-like animals that are known for migrating. They will run through meadows and towns in very large groups, as they look for food.
Musk ox are one of the largest mammals found in the Arctic. Although they are peaceful, they are very capable of protecting their young. When threatened, they form a circle around the calves and have been known to toss and stomp attacking wolves.
Reindeer and Caribou
This is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America. This includes both sedentary and migratory populations. They are also know as Caribou.
Let’s come to some other species of bird here beside the lovely penguin.
Albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the genus great albatrosses have the longest wingspans of any extant birds, reaching up to 3.7 metres (12 feet).
The bald eagle is an opportunistic feeder which subsists mainly on fish, which it swoops down and snatches from the water with its talons. They are not actually bald, they got this name due to their white head.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine. This is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, and a black head.
This is a medium-sized gamebird in the grouse family.
Puffins are any of three small species of alcids (auks) in the bird genus Fratercula with a brightly coloured beak during the breeding season. These are pelagic seabirds that feed primarily by diving in the water. They breed in large colonies on coastal cliffs or offshore islands, nesting in crevices among rocks or in burrows in the soil.
The snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) is a large, white owl of the typical owl family. Snowy owls are native to Arctic regions. Males are almost all white, while females have more flecks of black plumage.
Few interesting facts of this Frigid Zone
North Polar Region (Arctic)
It is the northernmost part of the Earth and primarily made up of the frozen Arctic Ocean that surrounds the North Pole. Land masses of Arctic region include islands and the northern parts of the European, Asian, and North American continents.
- The term ‘Arctic’ derives from Greek word ‘Arktikos’ which means near the Bear.
- It is divided by the summer isotherm, a climatic boundary between regions with summer temperatures averaging 50°F (or 10°C)—the subarctic—and colder regions (the true Arctic).
- Climate of this region is characterized by cold winters and cool summers. Winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies whereas summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow.
- Plants such as dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, lichens, and mosses, which all grow relatively close to the ground, forming tundra.
- There are over 40 different ethnics groupsliving in the Arctic region such as Saami in circumpolar areas of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Northwest Russia, Nenets, Khanty, Evenk and Chukchi in Russia, Aleut, Yupik and Inuit (Iñupiat) in Alaska, Inuit (Inuvialuit) in Canada and Inuit (Kalaallit) in Greenland.
South Polar Region (Antarctica)
It is the fifth largest continent in the world and contains 90 percent of all of the ice on the planet. This continent is divided into two regions – East and West Antarctica. It is governed by the 1958 Antarctic Treaty, which establishes the continent as a peaceful and cooperative international research zone.
- Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew was the first who used the term “Antarctica” for the region and as a continent in the 1890s.
- It is the highest continent with an average elevation above sea level of 2300 meter.
- It is the coldest and the windiest continent.
- 98 percent region is covered with ice and contains 70 percent of the world’s fresh water.
This is all about the Frigid Zone. Can be Frigid but not Rigid. This has a wide variety of plants, animal, habitation.
Last but not the least the fascinating part of this Frigid Zone is the Aurora.
Amazing environment, amazing and the magical Frigid Zone!!!
Hope you enjoyed it.